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Vac A- 1-38 



NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



WARTIME REPORT 



ORIGINALLY ISSUED 

March I9J+6 as 
Advance Restricted Report L5G19& 



COMPARISON OF TAIL AND WING-TIP SPIN-RECOVERY 
PARACHUTES AS DETERMINED BY TESTS IN THE 
LANGLEY 20 -FOOT FREE-SPINNING TUNNEL 
By Robert W. Kamm and Frank S. Malvestuto, Jr. 



Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 
Langley Field, Va. 




' * 1 8 » *"" 



MAC A 



WASHINGTON 

NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of 
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nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution. 



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-7f i 0H5 bi 



NACA ARK No. L5G19a RESTRICTED 

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



ADVANCE RESTRICTED REPORT 



COMPARISON 0? TAIL AND WING-TIP SPIN-RECOVERY 
PARACHUTES AS DETERMINED BY TESTS IN THE 
LANGLEY 20-FOOT FREE-SPINNING TUNNEL 
By Robert W. Karnra and Frank 3. Malvestuto, Jr. 

SUMMARY 



Tests of spin-recovery parachutes on six models of 
typical fighter and trainer airplanes wore conducted 
in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to obtain 
data for correlating model and full-scale results. 
Parachutes attached to the tail of the models, to the 
outer wing tip (left wing tip for a right spin), to the 
inner wing tip, and to both wing tips were tested. 

The results indicated that parachutes of the same 
size and type were more effective as spin-recovery 
devices when they were attached to the outer wing tip 
in the spin than when they were attached to the tail. 
The diameter of the outer wing-tip parachute required 
for a 2- turn recovery by parachute action alone varied 
from )± to 7 feet. Parachutes attached to the inner 
wing tip would not effect recovery. When parachutes 
attached to both wing tips were used for recovery, the 
parachute diameters required were of the same order as 
for tail parachutes. The diameter of the tail parachute 
required for a 2-turn recovery by parachute action alone 
varied from 6.5 to 12.5 feet for the airplane designs 



used. 



INTRODUCTION 



In order to obtain data for a correlation between 
model and flight tests of spin-recovery parachutes, tests 
were conducted with six airplane models of single-engine 
design. The effectiveness of both tail and wing-tip 
parachutes as spin-recovery devices was determined for 
these models. The spin-recovery parachute is normally 



NACA AHR No. LSGI9a 



used only as a temporary emergency safety device during 
spin demonstrations so that rapid recoveries from 
uncontrollable spins may be obtained. Available flight 
and model test data on the use of tail parachutes as 
spin-recovery devices are presented in reference 1, and 
the results of these tests indicated that airplanes 
weighing between 7500 and li|_,00G pounds require tail 
parachutes having diameters of approximately 8 feet 
"(based en a drag coefficient of 1,02) and towline 
lengths between 20 and 50 feet In order to obtain 
satisfactory recoveries by the use of the parachutes 
alone . 

Results are presented herein of the investigation 
of the six airplane models, designated models A, B, C, 
B, E, and F, with spin-recovery parachutes attached 
either to the tail or to the wing tips of the models 
for the normal loading conditions. On each model, tail 
and wing-tip parachutes of various sizes were tested with 
several lengths of line connecting the parachute to the 
airplane. The results are analyzed to show the minimum 
satisfactory size of the parachute and the optimum length 
of the towline for spin-recovery-parachute installations. 
Brief additional tests were conducted to investigate the 
effect of mass variations on the effectiveness of the 
spin-recovery parachutes v/hen attached to the wing and 
the effect on recovery of simultaneously opening a tail 
parachute and neutralizing the rudder. For one model, 
tests were made at two equivalent spin altitudes to 
determine whether altitude critically affected tail - or 
wing- tip- parachute effectiveness . 

Two of the models (A and B) had been used in the 
investigation of tail parachutes reported in reference 1 
and tests of tail parachutes were accordingly not repeated 
for these two models. The results obtained in the 
previous investigation are included however in the present 
paper. 

SYMBOLS 



b wing span, feet 

m mass of airplane, slugs 

Iv, I-yr, and Ig moments of inertia about the X, Y, and 

Z body axes, respectively, slu^-feet 



r ACA ARR No. L5G19a 



T X - T -Y 



mb^ 




Iy - 

X 


H 


mb 2 




*z - 


\ 



inertia yawing-moment parameter 



inertia ...rolling -moment parameter 



inertia pltchingi-moment parameter 
mb 

a acute angle between vertical axis and thrust 

line (approximately equal bo absolute 
value of angle of attack at plane of 
s yimae try ) , de gre e s 

angle between span axis and horizontal, 

degrees 

V airplane true rate of descent (estimated 

by scaling from model values), feet 
per second 

^ airplane- angular velocity about spin axis 

(estimated by scaling from model values), 
radians per second 

D drag of parachute, pounds; also diameter of 

parachute spread flat 



M 



q oynami c pre s s ur e 

p air density, slugs per cubic foot 

Crj drse - coefficient of" "parachute / - Q ) 

W 

S surface area, -of parachute, - square feet 

I 
C^ rolling-moment coefficient 



(-i 

\qo 



.oo, 

S wing arsa, square feet 

L rolling moment about. longitudinal. body axis, 

foot-pcunis 

/A 

^n yaw.ing-moment coefficient f — — j 

N yawing moment about normal body axis, 

foot-pounds 



lj. NACA ARR No. L5G-19a 

APPARATUS AND MODELS 

The tests were performed in the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel, the operation of which is similar 
to that of the 15-foot free -spinning tunnel described 
in reference 2. 

Models A, 3, C, and D, used in the investigation, 
represented typical fighter airplanes, whereas models E 
and p represented typical trainer-type airplanes. The 
design characteristics of the airplanes represented by 
the models are presented briefly in table I and three- 
view drawings of the models used in the tests in the 
Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel are presented as 
figures 1 to 6. 

The general construction of the spin models is 
described in reference 2. Briefly, the models, con- 
structed of balsa, are dimsnsionally representative of 
the corresponding airplane and are ballasted for 
dynamic similarity to the corresponding airplane by the 
installation of proper-size lead weights at suitable 
locations . 

The model parachutes used for most of the tests were 
the same ones used for the investigation reported in 
reference 1 and were made of parachute silk. The skirts 
of these parachutes were not hemmed, nor were the para- 
chutes made of individual panels. They were circular 
and when spread out on a flat surface formed a disk. 
Circular vent openings were cut in the center of the 
parachutes and were made one -twelfth of the diameter of 
the parachute when spread out on a flat surface in order 
to simulate approximately full-scale vent openings. 
Eight shroud lines of equal length were evenly spaced on 
the periphery of the parachute. The shroud-line lengths 
were made 1.35 times the diameter of the parachute 
because it has previously been found (reference 5) that 
with shroud lines greater than 1.25 times the diameter, 
the drag coefficient varies only slightly with change 
in shroud-line length. 

In order to determine whether details of construc- 
tion affected the action of the parachutes, a few 
parachutes were constructed to simulate more nearly 
full-scale parachutes - that is, the skirts were hemmed 



NAG A ARK No. L5G19a 



and. the parachutes were made of individual panels sewed 
bogether (fig. J). Ten panels and ten shroud lines were 
arbitrarily used for these parachutes. 



rptpqrr-.c 



The spin-testing technique used in the Langley free- 
spinning tunnels is described in detail in reference 2. 
Briefly, the models with the rudder set for the spin are 
launched by hand (this procedure supersedes the launching- 
spindle method described in reference 2) in a spinning 
attitude into the vertical upward air stream of the 
tunnel. The airspeed is adjusted to equal the normal 
rate of descent of the model. A remote-control mechanism 
is installed in the models to actuate the controls or to 
release the parachute for recovery attempts. 

For tests with the parachute mounted at the tail, 
most recoveries were attempted by ejecting the parachute 
from a container (as described in reference 1). The 
rudder was kept with the spin during recovery so that 
the effectiveness of the parachute alone could be obtained, 
In addition, a number of tests ware conducted in which, 
for recovery, the rudder was neutralized at Che same time 
that the parachute was opened so that the combined effect 
of opening the parachute and neutralizing the rudder could 
be evaluated. 

For the investigation of wing-tip parachutes, the 
parachutes were mounted on the upper surface of the wing 
near the wing tip. Figure 8 shows the type of instal- 
lation used. For attempted recoveries, a rubber band 
holding the packed model parachute to the wing was 
released by the remote -control mechanism and the parachute 
was opened merely by the action of the air stream over 
the wing. 

Tests were made to determine the parachute effec- 
tiveness with the loading along the wings and along the 
fuselage varied for several of the models. Table II 
presents the mass parameters of the models for the 
normal leading condition and for the alternate loading 

Iv - Iv Ty — I r ,' 

conditions. The parameters — — -, — — ^~ Jd > 

I z - I T mb 1 - mb 1 - 

and — ; o — are Indicative of the relative distribu- 

mb^ 

tlon of the mass along the three body axes. 



NAG A ARR No. L5G19a 



As previously mentioned, tests of both tail and 
wing-tip parachutes were made for one model ballasted 
to represent the corresponding airplane at altitudes 
of icf,000 and 20,000 feet. 



RESULTS AND PRECISION 



The results of the investigation are summarized in 
tables III to VIII and figures Q to 27. 

The drag coefficients of the model parachutes were 
found to be approximately 0.73 (based on flat area) by 
determining in the tunnel the rates of descent of the 
freely falling model parachutes with various weights 
attached. The full-scale-parachute diameters referred 
to herein were obtained by scaling up the model values, 
inasmuch as at the present time only limited data are 
available on the correct value of the drag coefficients 
of freely falling full-scale parachutes. Reference 3 
indicates that the drag coefficient 0.73 obtained for 
model parachutes is within the range of values of drag 
coefficients 0.62 to 0.79 obtained for freely falling 
full-scale silk antispin parachutes. In reference 1, 
the parachute diameters were corrected for a difference 
in drag coefficient between model and full-scale para- 
chutes on the assumption that the drag coefficient of 
full-scale parachutes was 1.02. In order to select 
the full-scale parachute, it is therefore necessary to 
know the drag coefficient of the full-scale parachute 
and to correct the parachute diameter for any difference 
in drag coefficient between the full-scale parachute and 
the model parachute to obtain the same drag. An example 
showing the method used to determine the correct diameter 
for full-scale parachutes, based on drag coefficients of 
model parachutes, is given in the appendix. 



The parameters given in table III present the steady- 
spin characteristics of the models just prior to attempted 
recoveries. All the models used in the present Investiga- 
tion had previously been tested and repaired extensively. 
As a result, the steady-spin characteristics presented in 
table III are somewhat different from those obtained 
during the previous routine investigations of the models 
but are considered to be accurate enough to give depend- 
able results for the present investigation. 



I AC A ARR No. L5G-19a 



The steady-spin parameters presented in table III 
are believed to be the true values given by the model 
within the following limits: 



a, degrees il 

0, degrees ±1 

V, percent -2 

& , percent i2 

host of the recovery data plotted in the figures 
were obtained from film records and are believed to 

,1 
be the true values given by the models within Ty turn. 

4 
A few of the recoveries were obtained '\dj visual estimates 

,1 
and are believed to be accurate within Z~ turn. 

DISCUSSION 
Parachute Construction 



The results of brief tests that were conducted to 
compare the drag coefficients and effectiveness of the 
plain fabricated model parachutes used in the investiga- 
tion reported in reference 1 with, the drag coefficients 
and effectiveness of parachutes more nearly approximating 
full-scale construction, as shown in figure 7» showed 
that the drag coefficients of the differently constructed 
parachutes were similar and that the parachutes had the 
same effectiveness of operation during model tests, host 
of the tests were therefore conducted with the olain 
fabricated earachutes since these parachutes were readily 
available in all sizes. 



Tail Parachutes 

The variation of turns for recovery with tail- 
parachute diameter for the normal-control configuration 
for spinning (rudder full with the spin, elevator full 
up, and ailerons neutral), for the elevator-neutral 
position (ailerons neutral), and for the ele vator-down 
position (ailerons neutral) are presented in figures 9 
10, and 11, respecti vely. Recoveries were attempted b 
ejecting the parachute from a cylinder installed near 
the tail. In figures 0, 10, 11, and the following 
graphs, the arrows on the ends of some of the curves 



/ > 



8 NACA ARK No. L5G19a 

mean that the model did not recover in the number of 
turns Indicated. Parts of the curves falling between 
points representing a diameter that gave recovery and 
one that did not give recovery are dashed to indicate 
that the fairing of that part of the curve is 
questionable . 

For a constant towline length the turns for recovery 
generally decreased as the tail-parachute diameter 
increased. The approximate full-scale-parachute diameters 
required to effect a recovery from the spin in 2 turns at 
the normal-control configuration are summarized in 
table IV and varied from 6.5 to 12.5 feet. 

For models a, B, and G, spins with the elevator up 
required somewhat larger tail parachutes than did spins 
with the elevator neutral or down, whereas for models D, 
S, and F, the opposite was true (figs. 9 to 11). 
The explanation of this result is not apparent. 

The length of the towline of tail parachutes had 
a marked effect on the number of ferns for recovery, as 
may be observed from figure 12, which presents results 
for elevator-up spins. (Although not presented, the 
same type results were obtained with the elevator 
neutral or down. ) Towline lengths between 20 and 
50 feet full scale were most satisfactory because 
within these limits the variation of turns for recovery 
with towline length was small. This result is con- 
sistent with the conclusion of reference 1. 

The effect of simultaneously opening a tail 
parachute and neutralizing the rudder is presented in 
table V for the up, neutral, and down positions of the 
elevator (ailerons neutral). Neutralizing the rudder 
in conjunction with opening the parachute was somewhat 
beneficial for all conditions tested. 

As previously mentioned, reference 1 Indicates 
that an 8-foot tail parachute (based on a drag coef- 
ficient of 0.73 instead of 1.02, the diameter of the 

parachute would be *y— feet instead of 8 feet) would 

effect a satisfactory (2-turn) recovery from the 
steady spin for airplanes weighing between 75^0 and 
li;.,000 pounds. The current tests indicate that the 
diameter of the tail parachute required for a satis- 
factory recovery from the spin is not constant nor 



SAC A ARR No. L5G19a 



does it vary directly with the weight of the airplane. 
For .example.., airplane C having a gross weight of 
7I4-O0 pounds required a 9~f°°t tail parachute and air- 
plane D having a gross weight of GOll pounds required a 
12.5-foot tail parachute, but airplane E having a gross 
weight of 9277 pounds (1266 pounds more than the gross 
weight of airplane D) required a J-±oot parachute for 
satisfactory recovery from the spin. 



Parachute 3 Mounted on Outer Wing Tip 

The wing- tip parachutes, mentioned previously, were 
mounted on the upper surface of the wing near the wing 
tip, as shown in figure 8. In some cases, the protuberance 
of the packed parachute affected the steady spin of the 
model, and for each series of tests determination of the 
location at which to place the parachute pack was necessary 
so that the steady-spin characteristics of the model were 
not changed. For this reason, Installing the parachutes 
on the surface of the wing of airplanes is not considered 
.advisable. The parachute packs should instead be placed 
inside the wing and provision should be made to eject 
the parachutes into the air stream. 

The variation of turns for recovery with parachute 
diameter for parachutes mounted on the outer wing tip 
(left wing tip In a right spin) for spins with the 
elevator up, neutral, and down are presented in fig- 
ures 13, 111, and 15, respectively. Figure 16 shows the 
action of the outer wing-tip parachute in effecting a 
recovery from, the spin. The towllne lengths were 
generally made approximately equal to the semispan of 
the airplanes. In general, for all models a larger wing- 
tip parachute was required to effect recovery from spins 
with the elevator neutral or down than from spins with 
the elevator up. The diameters of the outer wing-tip 
parachutes required to effect a recovery in 2 turns from 
the spin at the normal control configuration for spinning 
are given in table IV for all the models and varied 
from If. to 7 feet. 

The results in table IV indicate that for the models 
tested, a parachute attached to the outer wing tip is 
more effective as a spin-recovery device than the same 
size parachute attached to the tail. 



10 NACA ARE No. L531Qa 



Figure 17 presents test results showing the vari- 
ation of turns for recovery with towline length for 
wing-tip parachutes for the elevator-up spins. Towline 
length did not appear to influence the effectiveness of 
the parachutes appreciably. 'Ahen no towline was used 
(or when the towline was very short), however, the 
parachutes sometimes fluttered in the wake of the wing 
as shown in figure 13 (frames 1I4. and 15 ) and did not 
function properly. If long towlines ( towline s approxi- 
mately equal to or greater than wing span) are used to 
attach the parachute to the wing tip, there is the 
possibility of the parachute and towline fouling the 
tail or fuselage of the airplane as shown in figure 19 
(frames b r j> and ijij.). It is recommended, therefore, that 
the length of the towlines be such that when fully 
extended the parachute just misses both the tail and the 
fuselage. 



Parachutes mounted en Inner Wing Tip 

Brief tests (test results not presented) made with 
parachutes attached to the inner wing tip (right wing 
tip in a right spin) indicated that parachutes on the 
inner wing tip will not effect a satisfactory recovery 
from the spin. For some cases use of the parachutes 
was observed to flatten the spin. It is, therefore, 
very important to use care in opening the correct wing- 
tip parachute for attempted recoveries from spins. 



Parachutes Mounted en Both vVing Tips 

The simultaneous opening of two identical parachutes, 
one mounted on each wing tip, would eliminate the hazards 
encountered in using only one wing-tip parachute - the 
hazards are the possibility of opening the wrong parachute 
or the danger of being forced into a spin in the opposite 
direction by a large wing-tip parachute (see fig. 2C) if 
the parachute is not released immediately after recovery. 
The effect of parachute diameter for elevator-up, elevator- 
neutral, and elevator-down spins on turns for recovery 
attempted by simultaneously opening parachutes on both 
wing tips is presented in figures 21, 22, and 23, 
respectively^. Satisfactory recoveries from the elevator- 
up spins could not be effected for models A, B, B, and F 
with tiie largest parachutes tested. The results for models 3, 
B, and F were not plotted because, for the size of the 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 11 

parachutes investigated, recoveries could, not be obtained 
from spins. Models C and D required approximately 8-foot 
parachutes for a 2-turn recovery. The results presented 
in figures 21 to 2J indicate that moving the elevator 
full down in conjunction with opening the parachutes 
may he desirable in order to obtain recovery from spins 
by simultaneously opening parachutes mounted on both 
wing tips. 

A comparison of the results presented in table IV 
shows that much larger parachutes will be required to 
obtain satisfactory recoveries by opening parachutes 
mounted on both wing tips than by opening one parachute 
mounted on the outer wing tip. In order to obtain 
satisfactory recoveries by opening parachutes fastened 
to each wing tip, the parachute diameters may have to be 
as large or larger than the diameter .for tail parachutes. 

Figure 2lx shows the effect of towline length on 
turns for recovery attempted by the use of parachutes 
mounted on both wing tips for- the elevator-down condi- 
tion. As was the case for parachutes mounted on the 
outer wing tip, towline length generally had little 
effect on turns for recovery. When the towlines were 
too long (equal to the span), however, they frequently 
became tangled with each other and did not effect 
recovery. The results presented in figure 2).\. are for 
the cases in which the parachutes opened properly with- 
out tanarlins. 



Loading Variations 

In order to determine whether variations in loading 
of the models would influence the effectiveness of 
parachutes, tests were made on some of the models with 
the loading varied along the wings and fuselage. 

Brief tests of outer wing- tip parachutes were made 
on four of the models with the loading along the wings 
increased and on one of these four models with the 
loading along the fuselage increased. The results, 
which are summarized in table VI, indicate that extreme 
increases in the leading along the wings had little 
effect on the recoveries obtained by opening parachutes 
fastened to the outer wing tip for models A and E but 
had an adverse effect for models G and P. A moderate 
increase in the loading along the fuselage had little 
effect on recoveries of model F. 



12 liAQA ARE No. L5G19a 



Table VII summarizes the effect of loading vari- 
ations on the recoveries obtained by simultaneously 
opening parachutes mounted on both wing tips for models C, 
E, and P. With the loading along the wings increased 
for Model C, recoveries were slower than for the normal 
loading condition. as mentioned previously, recoveries 
could not be effected for models E and F in their normal 
loading conditions, and increasing the loading along the 
wings of these models had no noticeable effect en recovery 
A moderate increase in loading along the fuselage had no 
appreciable effect on the recoveries of model F. 

Brief tests were made with model 3 to determine the 
effect of loading variations on recoveries attempted by 
simultaneously opening a tail parachute and neutralizing 
the rudder. The results are presented in table VIII and 
show that moderate increases or decreases of mass along 
the fuselage and wings did not appreciably affect the 
recoveries. 



Effect of Test Altitude 

Brief tests i^ere conducted with model E to determine 
whether variations in test altitude would influence the 
effectiveness of spin-recovery parachutes for this air- 
plane. The model was tested at simulated test altitudes 
of 10,000 and 20,000 feet. The results are presented 
in figures Zy to 27. Based on these meager results, 
there appears to be little effect of altitude on the 
optimum size of wing-tip or tail parachute required for 
satisf actory recovery. The test altitude also had 
little effect on the variation of turns for recovery 
with -cowline length for parachutes attached to the tail. 



Action of Spin-Recovery Parachutes 

Tall parachutes .- The action of tail parachutes in 
effecting recoveries from spins has been discussed in 
reference 1. Briefly, with long towlines (towlines 
longer than 50 feet, full scale) the parachute towlines 
tend to Incline toward the spin axis. With short tow- 
lines (less than 20 feet, full scale) the parachute 
towlines tend to remain alined with the fuselage axis. 
With towlines between 20 and 5^' feet long, the parachutes 
usually ride approximately over the tail of the model, 
although they may oscillate from this position. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 13 



Reference 1 indicates that as the towline may usually 
incline away from the plane of symmetry toward the inner 
wing tip, the parachute exerts yawing as well as pitching 
moments out that the effectiveness of the parachute 
results more from the antispin yawing moment than from 
the pitching moment produced. 

Outer wing- tip parachutes .- The typical action of 
a parachute fastened to the outer wing tip in effecting 
recovery is shown in figure lo . Frame 15 of figure i6 
and frames 22 and 34- of figure 19 show that the parachute 
towline tended to incline awa;/ from the fuselage axis 
toward the vertical axis. Frame 20 of figure l6 and 
frames lo and 2-3 of figure 19 shew that the parachute 
towline generally tended to remain parallel to the 
X-Z plane of the model, although the parachute did 
oscillate. The motion-picture records of all the tests 
indicate that both roiling and yawing moments were set 
up by the parachute. As a matter of interest, the esti- 
mated yawing and rolling moments contributed by parachutes 
were compared with corresponding moments contributed by 
rudder reversal and full aileron deflection. The moments 
resulting from rudder and aileron deflection were computed 
by use of average moment-coefficient values for angles 
of attack in the spinning range obtained from force tests 
on models of other airplanes. For cases in which the 
outer wing-tip parachute was effective, the rolling- 
moment coefficient Cj due to the parachute was in the 

direction to roll the .model into the spin and varied 
from 0.010 to 0.015, which is less than one-half the 
typical rolling-moment coefficient of 0.03 developed by 
full aileron deflection. The yawing -moment coeffi- 
cient C n due to the parachute was approximately equal 
to the typical yawing-moment coefficient of 0.015, which 
would be expected from full reversal of the rudder. 
The effectiveness of wing- tip parachutes appears to 
result therefore more from the yawing moments set up 
by the parachute than from the rolling moments. 



Reference [l states that when the mass of an air- 
plane is distributed chiefly along the fuselage, setting 
the ailerons with the spin will assist recoveries 
obtained by rudder reversal, whereas when the mass is 
distributed chiefly along the wing, setting the ailerons 
with the spin may greatly retard recoveries. ft parachute 
attached to the o^ter wing tip, by inducing a pro-spin 
rolling moment, is in effect simulating the aileron- 
with-spin configuration of the airplane. It would be 



llj. NACA ARR No. L5< 



expected, therefore, that recoveries obtained by the use 
of an outer wing-tip parachute would be retarded by 
extending mass along the wing of the airplane, if the 
yawing moment due to the parachute and the yawing moment 
due to rudder reversal are approximately equal. This 
adverse effect of extending mass along the wing was 
obtained for models C and P, whereas for models A and E 
very little effect on turns for recovery was obtained by 
change in distribution of mass. 



CONCLUSIONS 

Results of tests of spin-recovery parachutes made 
on six models of typical fighter and trainer airplanes 
to obtain data for correlating model and full-scale 
results indicatedthe following conclusions: 

1. Parachutes were more effective as spin-recovery 
devices when they were attached to the outer wing tip 
in the spin than when they were attached to the tail. 
The diameter of the tail parachute required for a 2-turn 
recovery by parachute action alone varied from 6.5 to 
12,5 feet, whereas the diameter of the outer wing-tip 
parachute required for a 2-turn iiencovery by parachute 
action alone varied, from-ii. to 7 feet. 



2. When a parachute, jitta.ch.ed to the inner wing tip 
in the spin: was opened, the parachute- would not effect 
recovery. 

3. 'Mien parachutes attached, to both wing tips were 
used, -the parachute diameters required, were approximately 
the same size as for tail ^aarachutes. 

!(-. For wing-— tip parachutes it ia reccxmnended that 
the towline length be .such, that -men fully extended the 
parachute Just misses both the tail and fuselage. 

5. For tail parachutes the towline should be 
beirwee_n 2.0, and 50 feet long. 

6. Neutral. i .zing the* rudder at the same time that 
.the iaii parachute was opened gave faster recoveries 
than were -obtained by open ing the parachute alone. 



KACA ARR No. L5C-lQa 15 



7. ?or two of the four models tested with varied 
mass distribution, extension of mas3 along the wings 
had an adverse effect on recoveries attempted by opening 
parachutes attached to the outer wing tip. 

8. Tests conducted with one model at two equivalent 
test altitudes (10,000 and 20,000 ft) showed no noticeable 
effect of a change in altitude on the optimum size of 
wing-tip or tail parachute required for satisfactory 
recovery. 



Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 
Langley Field, Va. 



16 NACA ARR No. L5G19a 

APPENDIX 

MS07HOD 0? CORRECTING PARACHUTE SIZE FOR DIFFERENCES 

IN DRAG COEFFICIENTS 



The model tests Indicate that for model C, for 
example, a: 9»0-f° o ' t parachute fastened to the tail 
will be required to effect a recovery in 2 turns by 
merely opening the parachute. This diameter is "based 
on a drag coefficient Cd of 0.73 for the parachute. 
If it Is planned to use a parachute of similar shape 
but of different material so that the parachute has a 
drag coefficient of O.56, the area must be larger in 
the ratio of 0.73/0. 5^. The parachute diameter must 

therefore be larger in the ratio l! * , - l.lij-, which 

\l O.56 
gives a parachute diameter of 10. 'J feet. 



MAC A AHR No. L5G19a 17 

REFERENCES 



1. Seidman, Oscar, and Karam, Robert W.: Anti spin-Tail- 

Parachute Installations. NACA RB, Feb. 19^3. 

2. Zimmerman, C. H.: Preliminary Tests in the N.A.C.A. 

Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel. NACA Rep. No. 557, 
1936. 

3. '/food, John H.: Determination of Towline Tension and 

Stability of Spin-Recovery Parachutes. NACA ARR 
No. L6A15, 19i|6. 

i|. Neihouse, A. I.: A Mass-Distribution Criterion for 
Predicting the Effect of Control Manipulation on 
the Recovery from a Spin. NACA ARR, Aug. 19^2. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



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NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



TABLE II 

MASS PARAMETERS OF MODELS TESTED FOR NORMAL AND 
ALTERNATE LOADING CONDITIONS 



Airplane 


Loading condition 


I X - I Y 
mb 2 


mb 2 


iz - ix 

mb 2 


A 


Normal 


lk x io-J* 


-210 x 10-k 


I96 x 10-Jj- 


A 


I x and I z increased 
50 percent I x 


125 


-325 


200 


B 


Normal 


-6 


-165 


169 


C 


Normal 


•k3 


-l60 


205 


C 


I x and I„ increased 
115 percent I x 


173 


-589 


216 


D 


Normal 


-67 


-121 


188 


E 


Normal 


-63 


-90 


153 


E 


I x and I z increased 
206 percent I x 


170 


-325 


153 


F 


Normal 


-61+ 


-62 


126 


F 


Iy and I z increased 
JO percent Ly 


-118 


-64 


182 


F 


Iy and I z increased 
I2I4. percent I x 


82 


-206 


12k 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



20 



TABLE III 
STEADY-SPIN CHARACTERISTICS OP MODELS JUST PRIOR TO ATTEMPTED RECOVERIES 

[Controls set at ailerons neutral, rudder with the spizO 



Airplane 


Loading 
condition 


Rudder 
deflec- 
tion 
(deg) 


Ele vator 
deflec- 
tion 
(deg) 


a 

(deg) 




(deg) 

(a) 


V 
(fps) 


(radians/sec) 


A 


Normal 


30 


30 up 


Jtl 


2d 


226 


2.7 


A 


Normal 


30 





39 


3d 


214 


3.2 


A 


Normal 


30 


20 down 


38 


1+d 


207 


3-4 


A 


I x and I z 
Increased 
50 percent I x 


30 





ko 


2u 


172 


5.4 


B 


Normal 


30 


30 up 


36 


2d 


239 


2.3 


B 


Normal 


30 





38 





226 


3.1 


B 


Normal 


30 


20 down 


34 


lu 


222 


3.3 


C 


Normal 


30 


35 UP 


1*2 


Id 


203 


3.6 


C 


Normal 


30 





52 


Id 


171 


4.2 


C 


Normal 


50 


15 down 


51 


Id 


164 


4.2 


D 


Norsal 


30 


30 up 


55 


lu 


197 


2.7 


D 


Normal 


30 





53 


3u 


18U 


2.9 


D 


Normal 


30 


20 down 


54 


lu 


177 


3.0 


E 


Normal 


35 


25 up 


M 


3d 


H*7 


2.4 


E 


Normal 


35 





1*5 


6d 


125 


3.2 


E 


Normal 


35 


25 down 


ia 


8d 


125 


3.3 


E 


I x and I z 

Increased 
206 percent I x 


35 


25 up 


21 


3u 


217 


3.5 


P 


Normal 


35 


30 up 


36 


l*u 


178 


3.6 


F 


Normal 


35 





35 


lu 


162 


3.7 


P 


Normal 


35 


20 down 


36 


3d 


H+7 


2.4 


P 


I x and I z 

Increased 
12I4. percent I x 

Iy and I z 


35 


20 up 


26 


3u 


167 


3.0 


P 


Increased 
30 percent Iy 


35 


20 up 


38 





172 


2.3 



In describing 0, u means inner wing up; d, inner wing down. 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



21 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



TABLE IV 

FULL-SCALE PARACHUTE DIAMETERS REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS 
LOCATIONS OF PARACHUTE INSTALLATIONS TO 
EFFECT RECOVERY FROM THE NORMAL- 
CONTROL-CONFIGURATION SPIN IN 
2 TURNS BY OPENING 
THE PARACHUTES 



Model 


Approximate diameters (ft) 
required withr 


Parachute 
fastened to 
tail 


Parachute 
fastened to 
outer wing 
tip 


Parachute 
fastened to 

both wing 
tips 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 


10.0 
9.0 
9.0 

12.5 
6.5 
9.0 


5 
7 
5 

5 
k 
5 


>7 
>9 

9.0 

8 

>6.5 
>6 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



22 



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23 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



TABLE VI 

EFFECT OF LOADING VARIATIONS ON TURNS FOR RECOVERY OBTAINED BY OPENING 
A PARACHUTE MOUNTED ON THE OUTER WING TIP 



[Controls set at ailerons neutral, rudder with the spin] 



Airplane 


Loading 
conditions 


Full-scale 
parachute 
diameter 
(ft) 


Full-scale 
towline 
length 
(ft) 


Turns for recovery 


Elevator up 
(a) 


Ele vator 
neutral 


Elevator 
down 
(a) 


A 


Normal 


7.0 


10.0 


1 tO I7 

k 
l| to 2 


1 to 1^ 


i toi i 


A 


I x and I z 

increased by 
59 percent I„ 


7.0 


10.0 


l|to2 




C 


Normal 


5.0 


17.0 


V 0l 2 


2 


l|to2 


C 

c 


I x and I z 

increased by 
115 percent I x 

Normal 


5.0 

7-0 


17. D 
17.0 


More than I4. 
2 to 1 






1 to li 
2 


1 
1 to I2 


C 


I x and I z 

increased by 
115 percent Ij, 


7.0 


17.0 


li to 2 
2 










c 




8.8 


17.0 


1 to l| 








s 


Normal 


5.6 


17.3 


1"! 


1 




E 


Ij and I 2 

increased by 
206 pereent I x 


5.6 


17.5 


1 










F 


Normal 


5.0 


15.8 


1 


i 


ito i 


F 
F 

F 


I x and I z 

increased by 
I2I4. percent I x 

— - — -<Jo— — 

I Y and I„ 

increased by 
30 percent ly. 


5.0 
6.5 

6.5 


15.8 
15.8 

15.8 


More than 6 

1 

1 
2 










1 
k 


1 to l- 5 - 

k 



a The values of the deflections of the elevator and rudder are given in table III. 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



24 



TABLE VII 

EFFECT OF LOADING VARIATIONS OH TURNS FOR RECOVERY OBTAINED BY SIMULTANEOUSLY 
OPENING IDENTICAL PARACHUTES MOUNTED ON BOTH WING TIPS 

[Controls set at ailerons neutral, rudder with the spin] 



Airplane 


Loading 
conditions 


Full-scale 
parachute 
diameter 
(ft) 


Full-scale 
towllne 
length 
(ft) 


Turns for rec©*»ry 


Elevator up 
(a) 


Elevator 
neutral 


Elevator 
down 
(a) 


C 


Noraal 


7.0 


68.0 


^ te ^ 


2 to 2* 


2. 5. 2 


c 


Increased by 
115 percent L 


7-0 


68.0 


More than I4. 





— — 


c 


Normal 


8.8 


17.0 


J-4 


1 


1 


c 


I x and I z 

Increased by 
115 percent I x 


8.8 


17.0 


1 to 2 






E 


Normal 


5.6 


34.6 


00 


■M 


i 2 . 25 


E 


I x and I z 

Increased by 
206 percent I x 


5-6 


3U.6 


SO 


- 








F 


Normal 
I x and I z 


5.0 


15.8 


OO 


i-i 


1± 2 


F 


Increased by 
12I4. percent I x 


5.0 


15.8 


OO 






F 


Normal 


6.5 


15.8 


More than 6 


1 


1 


F 


h and h 

Increased by 
12l|. percent I„ 


6.5 


15.8 


00 










F 


Iy and I z 
Increased by 
30 percent Iy 


6.5 


15.8 


More than I4. 


1 to 15 


1 
k 



*The values of the elevator and rudder deflections are given In table III. 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



25 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



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Fig. 1 



9.60 '-M r Ul" 




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NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOB AERONAUTICS 



Figure 1.- Drawing of model A used In the teste In the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



Fig. 2 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



£ elevator hinge 



£ f/ap hinge 

.79" 



Thrust line 




Chord p/ane 



£ rudder hinge 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE F0» AERONAUTICS 



Figure 2.- Drawing of model B ueed In the tests In the Langley 20-foot 
free-eplnnlng tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 3 



<L elevator 
hinge 




4 at 30% chord 



Thrust 
line 



■40 J L 2 ° incidence 



18.10 



£ rudder 
hinge 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOB AERONAUTICS 



Figure 3.- Drawing of model C used In the teste In the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



Fig. 4 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



£ e/ei/ator 
h/'nge 



£ flap hinge 

<£ aileron 
hinge 




-Fuse/age reference 
fine 

NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



2 °/nc/dence 



<t rudder 
hinge 



Figure k.- Drawing of model D used In the tests In the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 5 



-11.50"- ~\r-LI8" 




T 3.08" 



£ aiieron hinge 
£ flap hinge 




3.5 /incidence 



Z0.85 



\^ rudder 
hinge 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOB AERONAUTICS 



Figure 5.- Drawing of model E used In the testa In the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



Fig. 6 



NACA" ARR No. L5Gl9a 



<k elevator hinge 



-3.53' 




W~7 ? *. 



fY~ 4 - 2 



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line 



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rudder hinge 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



Figure 6.- Drawing of model F ueed In the tests In the Langley 20-foot 
free-spinning tunnel. Normal loading condition. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 7a, b 









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NACA ARR No. L5G19a 




20 40 GO 80 /OO 

Fu//-sca/o fow//r?e /e/p^ff?^ ft 

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/-etc/o'er- w/'ffij a/'/orcyps /?euf/-afj e/eyczfor u/d. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 13 




NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOP AERONAUTICS 



3 4 5" 6 7 8 9 

/-u/Zsca/e oZ/a/r?efer scaZecZ up f/~o/r? /node/ sZze, ff 

F/gure/3rT/?e var/af/o/? of fur/?s for recovery wZfZi 
wZ/7y-fZ/0- / oan7c/?uZe cZZa/77<eZeri recovery aZZe/npfed 
by O/b e/?//?*? /oarac/puZe /??o6f/7fe>cZ or? oaZer vr//?y t/p. 
Co/pfro/s seZ af /-^cftfe/^ w/ZZ? / az/a/^ojos /?eccf/~aZ } 
eZeisaZo/- u/D. 



Fig. 14 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



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COHMITTEE FOR AERONAUT 

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4- 5 G 7 8 9 

fu/Z-sca/e dic/weter sca/ed up fro/r? mode/ s/ze } ff 

F/yure /J- —The isar/af/0/7 of fur/7? for r-e'cov&ry w/t/? 
w//?yt- /-//y-paracfu/e c//o~/r>efer; recovery affe/npfed 
by opes)//)<p paro/?ufe rnounferf en oufer w/ng f/p. 
C0/7 fro/3 sef of rudder W/Y/?, a//ero/?s r>eu fra/ t 
e/erafor r>eu.fr<z/. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 15 



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Corfro/s set at rudder w/f/?, a//ero/?s r?eufra/, 
eferafor don/?. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 16 



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Figure 16.- Photographic record of free-spinning model tests 
of airplane E showing a satisfactory recovery from the 
spin effected by opening a 7-foot parachute (full-scale 
value) attached to the outer wing tip with a 17-foot 
towline (full-scale value). MtloMl ADVI80RT MWt „„ F0R AIMMMTIC . 

L1K0LIT MIMORIAL ABROK AUT ICAL LABORATORT - LAKOLET FIELD, VA. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 17 













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f//y Co/?fro/s sef at rudder vv/f/?, a/' Zero/? s 
reufra/, e/evofor t//o. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 18 



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Figure 18.- Photographic record of free-spinning model tests 
of airplane E showing an outer-wing-tip parachute attached 
directly to the wing tip (no towline). Frames 14 and 15 
show parachute collapse. Parachute does not effect a 
satisfactory recovery from the spin. Full-scale parachute 
diameter, 4 feet. 



NATIONAL ADVISORT COIIHITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 
LANGLET UEUORIAL AERONAUTICAL LABORATORT - LANGLET FIELD, 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 19 






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Figure 19.- Photographic record of free-spinning model tests 
of airplane E showing a parachute attached to the outer 
wing tip with a long towline hitting the tail surfaces. 
Parachute diameter, 4 feet; towline length, 34.5 feet; 
(full-scale values). 



KiTIOIUL ADVISORY COtfUITTBE FOR 1ER0IUUTICS 
LHOLKT MKHORUL AgRORiUTICIL LiBORAIORT - LAHGLET FIELD, VA. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 20 






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Figure 20.- Photographic record of free-spinning model tests 
of airplane D showing the direction of spin changing from 
right to left because of the large yawing moment of the 
wing-tip parachute. Full-scale parachute diameter, 
5 feet. 



IUTI0IUL ADVI80RT COUKITTEE FOR ABR0MAUTIC8 
LANGLBT HBUORIAL AER0K1UT IC1L LABORATORY - LAJOLIT riILD, VA 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 21 




4- S 6 7 & 9 /O 

Fu/fsca/e d/ameter sca/eo 'up from /node/ s/ze ; ff 
F/gure2./.-T/?e variat/on of -rums for recovery 'with 
w/ng-t/pparachute d/ameter; recovery attempted 
by s/mu/faneous/y open/no 'parachutes mounted 
on both w/nq f/ps.Confro/s &ef af rudder wifh^ 
a/'/e ro/?s neu tra/ ; e/e va tor up • 



Fig. 22 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



5: 













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COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



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/r?ou/?fed os7 £of/? W/S7<p ffos. Co/?fro/s sef af 
rudder w/f/?j a/' Zeroes /yeufra/^ e /eva fey peufra/. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 23 



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NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



/t? 



/^///-sca/e c/scr/ppefer sca/od tyo fro/r? snodet s/'ze, ft 

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af/e/pPyOfed 6y s/sp?u/t<7/?eous/j o/Oe/?//?^ /xzra ct?ufes 
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w/f/?j cr//&ro/7S /?eutr&/j e/ev&tor c/oyy/7. 



Fig. 24 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 




NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOB AERONAUTICS 



fu//-sca/e fow/ine /en$rff) } ft 
F~/cfure24TTne. var/af/on of turns for recovery w/f/? 



■set erf rlsc/der m//)j a//erons neufra/je/evaT&rchwr). 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



Fig. 25 




Test a/ 1/ fade. 
20,000 ft 



NATIONAL ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE FOB AERONAUTICS 



4- £ 6 7 8 S 

fu/tsca/e d/ame fer sca/ed up from mode/ s/zs, ft 



/o 



F/G/ure25.-7~f)e effect of fesfa/t/fude on the i/ar/af/on 
of turns for recovery with parachute diameter for 
model E; recovery attempted by opening tail parachute. 
Towline length, 34.5 feet; controls set at rudder with, 
ailerons neutral ', elevator up. 



Fig. 26 



NACA ARR No. L5Gl9a 




5 

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f~u//-sca/e fow/)ne /e/?qf/?j ft 



f/gure 26.-7?7e effecf of fesf a/f/fude or? f/?e 
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length for model E; recovery affe/7ipted by opening 
f-Qi 7 parachute. Pa >rachut~e diameter^ feet ; controls 

set at rudder w/fh 3 a Herons neutral, e/evat-ors 
up. 



NACA ARR No. L5G19a 



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I 2 J A S 6 7 

Fo //-scale d/amefet 300/00/ up from mode/ s/zej ft 

f~(yure27,— The effect of test altitudQ on the [/or /of/ on 
of turns for recovery with parachute diameter for 
model Bj recovery attempted by open/no paracr?c/7e 
mounted on outer w/'ngt/p. lb yv line length ^54.5 feet; 
confrofs set at rudder with, a'/lerons n&utru/j 
elevator up- 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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